Uthman ibn Affan

`Uthman (Arabicعثمان ابن عفان‎, romanized`Uthmān ibn `Affān) (c. 579 – 17 July 656) was one of the early companions and son in law of Muhammad.Two of Muhammad and Khadija daughters Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum were married to him one after another. Uthman was born into the Umayyad clan of Mecca, a powerful family of the Quraysh tribe. He became caliph at the age of 70. Under his leadership, the empire expanded into Fars (present-day Iran) in 650 and some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) in 651, and the conquest of Armenia was begun in the 640s.[10] His rule ended when he was assassinated.

Uthman is perhaps best known for forming the committee which was tasked with producing copies of the Quran based on text that had been gathered separately on parchment, bones and rocks during the lifetime of Muhammad and also on a copy of the Quran that had been collated by Abu Bakr and left with Muhammad’s widow after Abu Bakr’s death. The committee members were also reciters of the Quran and had memorised the entire text during the lifetime of Muhammad. This work was undertaken due to the vast expansion of Islam under Uthman’s rule, which encountered many different dialects and languages. This had led to variant readings of the Quran for those converts who were not familiar with the language. After clarifying any possible errors in pronunciation or dialects, Uthman sent copies of the sacred text to each of the Muslim cities and garrison towns, and destroyed variant texts

Early life

Uthman was born to Affan ibn Abi al-‘As, of the Umayya, and to Arwa bint Kurayz, of the Abdshams, both wealthy clans of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca. Arwa’s mother was Umm Hakim bint Abdul Muttalib, making Arwa the first cousin of Muhammad and Uthman his first cousin’s son.[8][9] Uthman had one sister, Amina.[10]

Uthman was born in Ta’if. The exact date is disputed: both 576 and 583 are indicated.[11]:57He is listed as one of the 22 Meccans “at the dawn of Islam” who knew how to write.[12]

His father, Affan, died at a young age while travelling abroad, leaving Uthman with a large inheritance. He became a merchant like his father, and his business flourished, making him one of the richest men among the Quraysh

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Dr. Ali Muhammad Sallaabee
Language: English | Format: PDF | Pages: 626 | Size: 16.5 MB

In this book, Dr. As-Sallabi presents the life of the third caliph of Islam, `Uthman ibn `Affan, and highlights his great achievements, as well the issues and turmoil that he faced due to the hypocrisy movement that plagued the Muslim society. He also addresses the misrepresentations of `Uthmaan, fabricated by his enemies and detractors and perpetuated, inadvertently or otherwise, by writers and historians, as well as the activities of the hypocrites and the effort they put into fabricating these lies and causing division in the Ummah, the effects of which Muslims are still suffering today.

The study of history is of great importance, especially for Muslims who have been denied access to their heritage in many ways due to the upheavals that befell the Muslim world in recent decades and centuries, and due to tampering and insertions in their own books of history.

Usman ibn Affan was the fourth person to accept Islam upon invitation of Abu Bakr As Siddique. Thus he learned with the Prophet from the very beginning of Islam and faced much prosecution at the hands of his family and clansman. The Prophet (S) loved Usmaan so much so that he gave two of his daughters in marriage to him, earning him the title Dhun-Noorayn (carrier of 2 lights). Prophet said after the death of his second wife that if he had a third daughter he would have given her to Osman as well. The Prophet gave glad tidings of paradise to Othman saying that whatever he does after today will not harm him.

During his caliphate the Islamic empire spread far east into Azerbijan and south into North African and Nubia to name a few. During this time there were many achievements made in the Islamic empire including many canals, guest houses at different waypoints, and building of a much stronger Muslim army. He also established judicial and financial institutions to strengthen the Islamic empire. The last few years of his caliphate were however filled with great trials, which eventually led to his murder and division of the Muslim Ummah.

Dr. Ali M. Sallabi is famous for his detailed books of history and biography that bring the past to life for modern readers. Dr. Sallabi was born in Libya in 1383 H/1963 CE, and earned a bachelor’s degree at the Islamic University of Madinah, graduating first in his class. He completed his master’s and doctorate degrees at Omdurman Islamic University in Sudan.